In recent years, the scientific approach has proven helpful in solving issues and improving performance in almost every human effort. This approach entails gathering information or data relevant to the subject or concern at hand. In this scientific research, statisticians play a crucial role.

  • To begin, they organise the studies to verify that the data is obtained quickly and that the investigation’s questions are answered.
  • Second, they examine the data to see what conclusions can be drawn from the research and what further concerns need to be investigated.

There are many techniques available in statistical analysis which helps to draw conclusions with accuracy. For example, to calculate the efficiency, accuracy, and consistency of the sample, the standard error is used. In other words, it examines the extent to which a sampling distribution accurately represents a population. It has applications in both statistics and economics. It’s incredibly significant in econometrics, where researchers employ regression analysis and hypothesis testing. 

Now, let us discuss the brief about statistics and its types.

What is Statistics?

Statistics is applied math, concerned with the collection, description, analysis, and inference of conclusions from numerical data. Statistics extensively uses differential and integral calculus, probability theory and linear algebra. Every scientific area, including business, government, and manufacturing, uses statistics.

Types of Statistics

The two significant disciplines of statistics are descriptive statistics, which explains the characteristics of sample and population data, and inferential statistics, which uses those attributes to test hypotheses and draw conclusions. 

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics depicting the centre point or average value of a dataset is known as a measure of central tendency. These measures, often known as the central location of distribution, indicate where most values in a distribution fall. The mean, median, and mode are the three most popular measures of central tendency in statistics. Each of these calculations uses a different method to determine the position of the central point. It also focuses on determining the distribution and the variability of the sample data.

Inferential Statistics

Inferential statistics are techniques that statisticians use to derive conclusions about the properties of a population depending on the characteristics of a sample and to determine how confident they may be in those conclusions’ accuracy. Inferential statistics are used to make generalised statements about big populations, such as estimating future returns based on past returns and so on. One of the most widely used statistical inference techniques is regression analysis, which helps to find the strength and nature of the correlation between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. Many techniques are used in regression and correlation analysis, such as coefficient of determination, commonly known as R-square method, simple linear regression, ANOVA, etc.

Thus, descriptive statistics help us comprehend the collective qualities of the elements in a data sample and offer a framework for inferential statistics such as hypothesis testing and prediction.

As a result, statisticians and statistical approaches play a critical part in scientific research to gain information. Hence, the study of statistics provides a wide range of professional opportunities, which helps to improve our lives.